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Diabetes Type 2: Prevention, Treatment, and Lifestyle Tips

Type 2 diabetes is a long-term condition that affects how the body handles blood sugar (glucose). It happens when the body’s cells don’t respond well to insulin, a hormone that controls blood sugar. Over time, the pancreas can’t make enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal, leading to high blood sugar.


Symptoms of Type 2 diabetes usually appear slowly and can include:

  • Feeling very thirsty and needing to urinate often
  • Feeling tired
  • Blurry vision
  • Sores that heal slowly
  • Getting infections often
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet

Causes and Risk Factors

The exact cause of Type 2 diabetes is not known, but several things can increase the risk:

  • Family history: Having relatives with diabetes
  • Obesity: Having too much body fat, especially around the belly
  • Lack of exercise: Not being physically active
  • Age: Risk goes up with age, especially after 45
  • Ethnicity: More common in some ethnic groups
  • Other conditions: Having prediabetes, gestational diabetes, or polycystic ovarian syndrome


If not managed well, Type 2 diabetes can cause serious health problems:

  • Heart disease and stroke: Higher risk of heart problems
  • Nerve damage: Especially in the legs
  • Kidney damage
  • Eye damage: Can lead to blindness
  • Foot problems: Poor blood flow and nerve damage can cause serious infections

Management and Prevention

Managing Type 2 diabetes involves lifestyle changes and sometimes medication:

  • Healthy diet: Eat fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins. Avoid refined sugars and unhealthy fats.
  • Regular exercise: Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate exercise each week.
  • Weight management: Losing weight can help the body use insulin better.
  • Monitoring blood sugar: Check blood sugar levels regularly to manage and adjust treatment.
  • Medications: Metformin is often prescribed to help the body use insulin better. Other medications may also be used.


Preventing Type 2 diabetes involves living a healthy lifestyle:

  • Healthy eating: Choose foods with a low glycemic index.
  • Physical activity: Stay active with regular exercise.
  • Weight control: Keep a healthy weight.
  • Regular check-ups: Monitor blood sugar levels, especially if you have risk factors.

Type 2 diabetes can be managed with the right lifestyle changes and medical care. Early detection and proactive management are key to preventing complications and maintaining a good quality of life.

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