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How the Brain Works: Anatomy, Function, and Disorders

Brain function is a name for the different things that the brain does, like thinking, learning, remembering, feeling, controlling, and talking. The brain is the most complicated part of the human body, and it is in charge of all the other parts and systems. The brain function can be split into four main groups:

  • Cognitive function: This is about the mind processes of getting, keeping, changing, and using information. Cognitive functions include focus, notice, memory, logic, solving, choosing, language, and imagination.
  • Emotional function: This is about the emotions, moods, and views that affect how we see and react to ourselves, others, and the world. Emotional functions include happiness, sadness, anger, fear, love, understanding, and drive.
  • Motor function: This is about the planning and doing of movements of the body that we can or cannot control. Motor functions include walking, running, jumping, holding, eating, breathing, and blinking.
  • Autonomic function: This is about the control of the inside parts and systems that keep the body balanced. Autonomic functions include heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, digestion, energy, and defense.

The brain function is decided by the shape and activity of the brain cells, called neurons, and the links between them, called synapses. The brain has billions of neurons and trillions of synapses, making a complex network that allows information working and talking. The brain function is also affected by various things, such as genes, environment, food, hormones, drugs, diseases, and aging.

The brain function can be checked and tested by various ways, such as brain pictures, electroencephalography (EEG), brain tests, and behavior watching. These ways can help find and treat various brain problems, such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, epilepsy, depression, and schizophrenia. They can also help learn and improve the normal brain function, like learning, memory, intelligence, and creativity.

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